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endnote新建style存储位置_Fred_Yang的博客-CSDN博客_endnote修改style后保存在哪.Editing in-text citations – EndNote Guide – Subject Guides at University of Canterbury

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Microhematuria: AUA/SUFU Guideline () – American Urological Association.Output Styles | EndNote

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In order to adopt a risk-stratified approach incorporating markers, future studies will be necessary to determine if urine markers improve risk stratification. A prospective randomized trial is currently open that randomizes patients based on clinical risk and marker status NCT Patients in the marker arm will have a clinical risk stratification, such that patients with low clinical risk and a negative marker will not have cystoscopy but follow-up only, while those with a positive marker or higher risk based on clinical factors will undergo a standard evaluation with cystoscopy.

This marker-based approach will be compared to a standard evaluation in the control arm. Such randomized trials will provide the strength of evidence needed to establish a role for markers in patients with hematuria. Another area worthy of further evaluation is whether enhanced cystoscopy has a role in the detection of bladder cancer among patients with hematuria.

However, there is insufficient evidence with regard to the role of enhanced cystoscopy in hematuria patients without an established bladder cancer diagnosis. Opportunities to reduce radiation exposure with imaging represents another ongoing focus of investigation. The natural history — and, as an extension, the recommended follow-up — of patients with hematuria following a completed, negative evaluation also represents a relevant topic for future study.

Many patients with MH will have persistent findings of microscopic blood — likely due to benign causes that may or may not be recognized — and the optimal approach to these patients has not been established.

Continued evaluations risk patient anxiety as well as potentially unnecessary resource allocation. These concerns are likewise relevant for low-risk patients who initially choose surveillance rather than evaluation.

Hematuria is a highly prevalent condition, impacting a large population whose evaluation is managed by a wide variety of practitioners. The impact of this guideline on intensity and frequency of evaluation will need to be studied to determine if the utilization of recommendations has improved. While viewing Guideline Statements on a desktop computer, use the left navigation to jump to different parts of the page. Standard Operating Procedures Overview.

COI Disclosure. Purpose The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up of microhematuria MH. Guideline Statements Diagnosis and Definition of Microhematuria 1. Clinical Principle 4. Clinical Principle 6. Clinical Principle 7. Clinical Principle Risk Stratification 9. In such patients, clinicians should perform cystoscopy and upper tract imaging in accordance with recommendations for these risk strata Strong Recommendation; Evidence Level: Grade C Intermediate-Risk Moderate Recommendation; Evidence Level: Grade C If there are contraindications to multiphasic CT urography and MR urography, clinicians may utilize retrograde pyelography in conjunction with non-contrast axial imaging or renal ultrasound.

Expert Opinion Expert Opinion Urinary Markers Expert Opinion Follow-Up Methodolgy The systematic review utilized to inform this guideline was conducted by an independent methodological consultant. Searches and Article Selection A systematic review was conducted to inform on appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up in patients with suspected and confirmed MH.

Data Abstraction Data were extracted from all studies that passed full-text review by the methodologist. Risk of Bias Assessment Quality assessment for all retained studies was conducted. Data Synthesis One of the main objectives for the guideline is to establish a risk model to stratify patients based on their risk for underlying urologic malignancy. Determination of Evidence Strength The AUA employs a three-tiered strength of evidence system to underpin evidence-based guideline statements.

Table 1 The AUA categorizes body of evidence strength as Grade A well-conducted and highly-generalizable RCTs or exceptionally strong observational studies with consistent findings , Grade B RCTs with some weaknesses of procedure or generalizability or moderately strong observational studies with consistent findings , or Grade C RCTs with serious deficiencies of procedure or generalizability or extremely small sample sizes or observational studies that are inconsistent, have small sample sizes, or have other problems that potentially confound interpretation of data.

Proper Sample Collection For most initial evaluations, a random midstream clean-catch collection is sufficient. Analytic Technique Analytic techniques vary, with some now using flow cytometry rather than microscopy.

Guideline Statement 3 3. Patient-centered approach to diagnostic evaluation The Panel recognizes that patients presenting with hematuria represent a heterogeneous population with a broad spectrum of risk for underlying malignant causes based on clinical and demographic features. Risk Stratification Several risk stratification models have been described from cohorts of patients undergoing evaluation of hematuria.

Guideline Statement 10 Guideline Statement 11 Guideline Statement 12 Guideline Statement 13 Mariani AJ, Mariani MC, Macchioni C et al: The significance of adult hematuria: 1, hematuria evaluations including a risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis.

J Urol ; Campbell Walsh Wein Urology, 12th Edition. Bladder Cancer ; 3 Urology ; 21 Mayo Clin Proc ; 88 Aguilar-Davidov B, Ramirez-Mucino A, Culebro-Garcia C et al: Performance of computed tomographic urography for the detection of bladder tumors in patients with microscopic hematuria.

Actas Urol Esp ; 37 Cancer ; Kang M, Lee S, Jeong SJ et al: Characteristics and significant predictors of detecting underlying diseases in adults with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria: a large case series of a Korean population. Int J Urol ; 22 Lai WS, Ellenburg J, Lockhart ME et al: Assessing the costs of extraurinary findings of computed tomography urogram in the evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.

Urology ; 95 Urol Oncol ; 17 Samson P, Waingankar N, Shah P et al: Predictors of genitourinary malignancy in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Urol Oncol ; 36 Scand J Urol ; 51 BJU Int ; : Georgieva MV, Wheeler SB, Erim D et al: Comparison of the harms, advantages, and costs associated with alternative guidelines for the evaluation of hematuria.

Halpern JA, Chughtai B, Ghomrawi H: Cost-effectiveness of common diagnostic approaches for evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Urology ; 72 : Todenhofer T, Hennenlotter J, Tews V et al: Impact of different grades of microscopic hematuria on the performance of urine-based markers for the detection of urothelial carcinoma. Urol Oncol ; 31 Int Urol Nephrol ; 48 J Clin Urol ; 6 Int J Clin Pract ; 71 : Epub. Cohn JA, Vekhter B, Lyttle C et al: Sex disparities in diagnosis of bladder cancer after initial presentation with hematuria: a nationwide claims-based investigation.

Ark JT, Alvarez JR, Koyama T et al: Variation in the diagnostic evaluation among persons with hematuria: influence of gender, race, and risk factors for bladder cancer. J Gen Intern Med ; 30 Clin Genotiurin Cancer ; 14 :e Cancer ; : Wennberg JE: Unwarranted variations in healthcare delivery: implications for academic medical centres. BMJ ; : J Clin Epidemiol ; 64 Rating the quality of evidence.

J Clin Epidemiol. Review Manager RevMan Version 5. Faraday M, Hubbard H, Kosiak B et al: Staying at the cutting edge: a review and analysis of evidence reporting and grading; the recommendations of the American Urological Association.

Urology Practice ; 7 : 1. Rosser CJ, Nakamura K, Pendleton J et al: Utility of serial urinalyses and urinary cytology in the evaluation of patients with microscopic haematuria. West Afr J Med ; 29 Addis T: The number of formed elements in the urinary sediment of normal individuals. J Clin Invest ; 2 : Kincaid-Smith P: Haematuria and exercise-related haematuria. JAMA ; : Eur Urol ; Occup Med Lond ; 66 : Int J Cancer ; : Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 18 : Dobbs RW, Hugar LA, Revenig LM et al: Incidence and clinical characteristics of lower urinary tract symptoms as a presenting symptom for patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer.

Int Braz J Urol ; 40 : Int Urol Nephrol ; 47 Acta Radiol ; 56 Urol Oncol ; 36 : Arch Int Med ; Avidor Y, Nadu A and Matzkin H: Clinical significance of gross hematuria and its evaluation in patients receiving anticoagulant and aspirin treatment. Urology ; 55 JAMA ; Henning A, Wehrberger M, Madersbacker S et al: Do differences in clinical symptoms and referral patterns contribute to the gender gap in bladder cancer?

BJU Int ; Am J Med ; J Am Soc Nephrol ; 25 : Paper 5: a qualitative study with experts suggests that test accuracy data alone is rarely sufficient for decision making.

J Clin Epidemiol ; 92 : Willis BH: Spectrum bias—why clinicians need to be cautious when applying diagnostic test studies. Fam Pract ; 25 : Tan WS, Ahmad A, Feber A et al: Development and validation of a haematuria cancer risk score to identify patients at risk of harbouring cancer. J Intern Med ; : World J Urol ; 30 Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Commander CW, Johnson DC, Raynor MC et al: Detection of upper tract urothelial malignancies by computed tomography urography in patients referred for hematuria at a large tertiary referral center.

Urology ; Pesch B, Nasterlack M, Eberle F et al: The role of haematuria in bladder cancer screening among men with former occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Ramirez D, Gupta A, Canter D et al: Microscopic haematuria at time of diagnosis is associated with lower disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer. Sapre N, Hayes E, Bugeja P et al: Streamlining the assessment of haematuria: 3-year outcomes of a dedicated haematuria clinic.

ANZ J Surg ; 85 Abdom Radiol NY ; 43 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 14 Scandinavian Journal of Urology ; 51 : N Engl J Med ; : Urol Oncol ; 33 : e Clin Radiol ; 68 :e Eur Urol ; 64 Urology Annals ; 6 Blick CGT, Nazir SA, Mallett S et al: Evaluation of diagnostic strategies for bladder cancer using computed tomography CT urography, flexible cystoscopy and voided urine cytology: results for patients from a hospital haematuria clinic.

Herr HW: The risk of urinary tract infection after flexible cystoscopy in patients with bladder tumor who did not receive prophylactic antibiotics. Bladder Cancer ; 5 : Urol Oncol ; 35 : Janssen KM, Nieves-Robbins NM, Echelmeier TB et al: Could nonenhanced computer tomography suffice as the imaging study of choice for the screening of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria?

Br J Radiol ; 85 Dallmer JR, Robles J, Wile GE et al: The harms of hematuria evaluation: modeling the risk-benefit of using split bolus computerized tomography urography to reduce radiation exposure in a theoretical cohort.

Martingano P, Cavallaro MF, Bertolotto M et al: Magnetic resonance urography vs computed tomography urography in the evaluation of patients with haematuria. Radiologia Medica ; National Organization for Rare Disorders: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

Eur Urol ; 71 : A simple method of assessing the diagnostic value of endoscopic procedures when a gold standard is absent. Fradet Y, Grossman HB, Gomella L et al: A comparison of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy and white light cystoscopy for the detection of carcinoma in situ in patients with bladder cancer: a phase III, multicenter study. Rink M, Babjuk M, Catto JW et al: Hexyl aminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a critical review of the current literature.

Eur Urol ; 64 : Schubert T, Rausch S, Fahmy O et al: Optical improvements in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: implications for clinical practice. Ther Adv Urol ; Lotan Y, Bivalacqua TJ, Downs T et al: Blue light flexible cystoscopy with hexaminolevulinate in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: review of the clinical evidence and consensus statement on optimal use in the USA — update Nat Rev Urol ; Stenzl A, Burger M, Fradet et al: Hexaminolevulinate guided fluorescence cystoscopy reduces recurrence in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

J Endourol ; 25 Am J Surg Pathol ; 12 : Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 21 : Am J Sug Pathol ; 38 : Daneshmand S, Patel S, Lotan Y et al: efficacy and safety of blue light flexible cystoscopy with hexaminolevulinate in the surveillance of bladder cancer: a phase III, comparative, multicenter study.

Bladder Cancer ; 4 Pichler R, Heidegger I, Leonhartsberger N et al: The need for repeated urological evaluation in low-risk patients with microscopic hematuria after negative diagnostic work-up. Anticancer Res ; 33 : Madeb R, Golijanin D, Knopf J et al: Long-term outcome of patients with a negative work-up for asymptomatic microhematuria.

In recent years, clinicians worldwide have demonstrated a renewed interest in the management of patients with tracheostomy due to the recognition that more effective and efficient management of this patient population is necessary to decrease morbidity and mortality and to optimize the value of the procedure. Commensurate with the goal of enhancing the care of patients with tracheostomy, we conducted a systematic review to facilitate the development of recommendations relevant to the care of adult patients with tracheostomy in the acute care setting.

From our systematic review, clinical practice guidelines were developed to address questions regarding the impact of tracheostomy bundles, tracheostomy teams, and protocol-directed care on time to decannulation, length of stay, tracheostomy-related cost, tracheostomy-related adverse events, and other tracheostomy-related outcomes in tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting.

A tracheostomy is commonly performed in critically ill patients because it potentially confers several benefits over prolonged endotracheal intubation, including airway stability, facilitation of oral intake, increased comfort, and, possibly, facilitation of weaning. Between and , 9. The care of patients with tracheostomy is costlier because of their longer hospital stay and because they are commonly discharged to a long-term facility.

Halum and colleagues 11 investigated the long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with ages ranging from 15 to 93 y and reported that subjects with tracheostomy had higher mortality Adult patients with tracheostomy consume a disproportionate amount of health care resources. Effective and efficient management of patients with tracheostomy is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality and to reduce the cost of care in this patient population.

We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to develop recommendations that could enhance the care of adult patients in the acute care setting with tracheostomy tubes in situ. The clinical practice guidelines that were developed from this systematic review are centered around the following questions relevant to the management of adult patients in the acute care setting:. Does the use of a tracheostomy bundle impact time to decannulation, length of stay LOS , tracheostomy-related cost, and tracheostomy-related adverse events in tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting?

Does the use of tracheostomy teams impact time to decannulation, LOS, tracheostomy-related cost, and tracheostomy-related adverse events in tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting?

Does protocol-directed care impact time to decannulation, LOS, tracheostomy-related cost, and tracheostomy-related adverse events in tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting? A committee was selected by American Association for Respiratory Care AARC leadership based on their known experience related to the topic, interest in participating in the project, and commitment to the process details.

The committee first met face-to-face, where they were introduced to the process of developing clinical practice guidelines. At that time, the committee selected a chair and wrote a first draft of questions in a format that directly related to the patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome PICO. Subsequent meetings occurred as needed by conference call and included AARC staff as needed.

Frequent email communications occurred among committee members and AARC staff. The committee members received no remuneration for their participation in the process, though their expenses for the face-to-face meeting were covered by the AARC. The search strategies used a combination of relevant controlled vocabulary ie, Medical Subject Headings and CINAHL Headings and keyword variations that related to tracheostomy care and techniques, hospitalization, and outcomes.

The searches were limited to English-language studies about human populations. The searches were also designed to filter out citations indexed as commentaries, editorials, interviews, news, or reviews.

No date restrictions were applied to the searches. Duplicate citations were identified and removed using EndNote X7 citation management software Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility in the Covidence systematic review software Melbourne, Australia. Inclusion criteria used to assess eligibility were: 1 tracheostomy and 2 adult population. The exclusion criteria used were: 1 not tracheostomy care, 2 non-clinical topic, 3 pediatric population, 4 endotracheal tube, 5 intubated patients, 6 laryngectomy, 7 case study, and 8 not empirical research eg, theory or opinion articles.

The search strategies retrieved 1, articles. After the removal of duplicates, 1, articles remained for screening, of which 1, were excluded at the title and abstract level. Of the remaining articles, 96 were excluded following full text review against the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

During the extraction phase, 4 additional articles were excluded. A total of 17 articles were included in this systematic review Fig. Risk of bias for most of the studies no. The most common limitations to the quality of the studies were small sample size, retrospective study design, inadequate description of study subjects and procedures, and weakness in statistical methodology. It is recognized that a process is necessary to combine the best available evidence with the collective experience of committee members.

The literature was collapsed into evidence tables according to PICO question. Individual panel members were assigned the task of writing a systematic review of the topic, drafting 1 or more recommendations, and suggesting the level of evidence supporting the recommendation: A convincing scientific evidence based on randomized controlled trials of sufficient rigor; B weaker scientific evidence based on lower levels of evidence such as cohort studies, retrospective studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies; C based on the collective experience of the committee.

Committee members reviewed the first draft of evidence tables, systematic reviews, recommendations, and evidence levels. Each committee member rated each recommendation using a Likert scale of 1—9, with 1 meaning expected harms greatly outweigh the expected benefits and 9 meaning expected benefits greatly outweigh the expected harms. The ratings were returned to the committee chair. The first ratings were done with no interaction among committee members. A conference call was convened, during which the individual committee ratings were discussed.

Particular attention was given to any outlier scores and the justification. Recommendations and evidence levels were revised with input from the committee members. After discussing each PICO question, committee members re-rated each recommendation. The final median and range of committee members’ scores are reported. Strong agreement required that all committee members rank the recommendation 7 or higher, whereas weak agreement meant that one or more committee members ranked the recommendation below 7, but the median vote was at least 7.

For recommendations with weak agreement, the percentage of committee members who rated 7 or above was calculated and reported after each weak recommendation. Figure 2 illustrates the process flow the panel used to rate the appropriateness and quality of the literature selected through the search process.

Drafts were distributed among committee members in several iterations. When all committee members were satisfied, the document was submitted for publication. The clinical practice guidelines were subjected to peer review before final publication.

Patients with tracheostomies are medically complex and require integrated care from several different health care professionals. To streamline the care of multiple providers, care bundles have been introduced. Care bundles have become commonplace because their use has demonstrated improvement in both care processes and outcomes. For example, discharge care bundles for patients with COPD result in fewer hospital readmissions, 32 and specific ventilator bundle components are associated with improved outcomes.

Despite this evidence, a review of the relevant literature yielded only 1 observational study of a tracheostomy care bundle, which consisted of 4 structured approaches to providing care for patients with tracheostomies. Tracheostomy-related outcomes are important consequences of having a tracheostomy tube in situ and include time to decannulation, tracheostomy-related adverse events, tracheostomy-related health care cost, hospital LOS, tracheostomy-related pressure injury, time to oral intake, and time to communication.

Only 2 studies, which were observational in nature, have addressed this question Table 1. The researchers noted that the decannulation rate before discharge Additionally, the proportion of subjects in the post-tracheostomy bundle group that tolerated an oral diet before discharge There was no significant difference in the median hospital LOS between the 3 groups of subjects.

Because this observational study of subjects was conducted in a single institution and the severity of illness and duration of mechanical ventilation was different between groups, it is unclear whether these results can be generalized.

Over the past decade, the awareness of medical device-related pressure injury has increased, as have recommendations for preventive measures for reducing pressure injury caused by respiratory care devices, such as noninvasive positive pressure device interfaces and endotracheal tubes. The bundle used in the study consisted of 4 components: 1 placement of a hydrocolloid dressing underneath the tracheostomy flange in the postoperative period, 2 removal of plate sutures within 7 d of the tracheostomy procedure, 3 placement of a polyurethane foam dressing after suture removal, and 4 neutral positioning of the head.

The researchers reported a significant reduction in the rate of hospital-acquired tracheostomy-related pressure ulcers in the post-TRAPU care bundle group 1. Given the benefits of using a structured approach to provide unique care to each patient, evidence supports the use of tracheostomy bundles that have been evaluated and approved by a team of individuals experienced in tracheostomy management for tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting Evidence level B; median appropriateness score 7, range 6—8.

This approach has been shown to decrease time to decannulation, decrease tracheostomy-related adverse events, and improve other tracheostomy-related outcomes, namely, tolerance of oral diet. The most rigorous assessment of the evidence regarding the use of tracheostomy teams in the management of patients with tracheostomy tubes was performed by Speed and Harding 36 via a systematic review and meta-analysis. After the publication of this meta-analysis, 2 observational studies 21 , 23 that focused on the use of a tracheostomy team were published.

The study by Arora and colleagues 14 was not included in the meta-analysis. These 3 additional observational studies were determined to be of low to moderate quality. The outcomes on which the meta-analysis by Speed and Harding 36 focused were limited to time to decannulation and hospital LOS. However, other clinically important tracheostomy-related outcomes were reported in the meta-analysis.

The results of the meta-analysis indicated that tracheostomy teams were associated with reductions in total tracheostomy time and increased speaking valve use. Of the 10 studies 14 — 23 all observational that focused on the use of tracheostomy teams, 8 reported time to decannulation as an outcome, 14 — 19 , 22 , 23 and 3 of these 8 studies 14 , 16 , 22 reported a significant decrease in time to decannulation in subjects managed by a tracheostomy team.

Six studies 15 — 17 , 19 — 21 reported tracheostomy-related complications or adverse clinical events as an outcome, and all 6 studies reported significantly less adverse clinical outcomes in subjects managed by a tracheostomy team. One study reported tracheostomy-related cost, 15 and 1 study reported tracheostomy tube downsizing time 17 Table 2. The composition of the multidisciplinary tracheostomy team, role of team members, and team responsibilities varied for each study.

In the 2 North American studies by de Mestral et al 17 and Welton et al, 23 a respiratory therapist was a member of the multidisciplinary team that included a physician and a speech-language pathologist. Medical overuse in the Iranian healthcare system: A systematic review protocol. BMJ Open 8 , e Morteza, A. Hassanipour, S. Comparison of artificial neural network and logistic regression models for prediction of outcomes in trauma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Injury 50 , — Huedo-Medina, T. Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I 2 index?. Methods 11 , Cai, Q. Engineering Beijing, China 6 , — Chen, P. Dabbous, H. Safety and efficacy of favipiravir versus hydroxychloroquine in management of COVID A randomised controlled trial. Doi, Y. A prospective, randomized, open-label trial of early versus late favipiravir therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID Ivashchenko, A. Khamis, F. Randomized controlled open label trial on the use of Favipiravir combined with inhaled interferon beta-1b in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID pneumonia.

Lou, Y. Udwadia, Z. IJID , 62— Zhao, H. Erdem, H. Shrestha, D. Favipiravir versus other antiviral or standard of care for COVID treatment: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis.

Virol J. Pilkington, V. Virus Erad. Malvy, D. The safety profile of Favipiravir should not be the first argument to suspend its evaluation in viral hemorrhagic fevers. PLoS Negl. Noda, A. Accessed 21 Aug Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

All authors approve the manuscript before submission. Correspondence to Morteza Arab-Zozani. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

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Reprints and Permissions. The efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in treatment of COVID a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Sci Rep 11, Download citation. Received : 10 January Accepted : 13 May Published : 26 May Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. European Journal of Medical Research By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

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Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF. Subjects Infectious diseases Viral infection. Abstract The novel coronavirus outbreak began in late December and rapidly spread worldwide, critically impacting public health systems.

Introduction The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak began in late December and rapidly spread worldwide, critically impacting public health systems 1. Eligibility criteria All clinical trials study design which addressed the safety and efficacy of Favipiravir intervention in comparison to other control groups comparison for treatment of patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV2 population were included. Study records Once the records have been imported to EndNote X7 software and all duplicates have been removed, two reviewers SH and BA manually and independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-texts of included studies based on predefined eligibility criteria to identify studies concerning the safety and efficacy of Favipiravir among patients with COVID Data extraction and data items Two reviewers SH and BA independently extracted data from included studies, using a pre- piloted data extraction form.

Risk of bias in individual studies Two reviewers MF and FH independently assessed the risk of bias among the included studies.

Results Description of search We identified a total of records after searching the databases. Figure 1. Search process and study flow diagram. Full size image. Table 1 summary characteristics of the included studies. Full size table. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Limitations There are some limitations to the included studies.

Conclusion Overall, Favipiravir possibly exerted no significant beneficial effect in the term of mortality in the general group of patients with mild to moderate COVID References Arab-Zozani, M. Article Google Scholar Hassanipour, S. Article Google Scholar Cai, Q. Article Google Scholar Doi, Y. View author publications. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Additional information Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information. Supplementary Figure. About this article. Cite this article Hassanipour, S. Copy to clipboard.

 
 

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